听力理解是四级考试中分值较大的一个部分，占整份试卷的35%。它总共分为3个部分，四种类型：Section A由8组短对话和2组长对话组成，前者含有八个问题，后者含有7个问题，分值为15%;Section B由3篇短文组成，含有10个问题，分值为10%;Section C由一篇短文组成，要求填写7个单词和3句话，分值为10%。 一、听力理解命题剖析(略) 二、听力理解命题预测(略) 第二节 听力理解应试指导——“定位法” 根据听力部分的命题特点可知，“定位法”是最适合的解题方法之一，可以完全按照其基本步骤来解题，即：预测→定位→验证。 一、预测 鉴于听力的特殊性——阅读材料中只有题支，没有题干，所以主要是通过题支(复合式听写除外)来预测。预测的基本原则是：联系想内容，区别(反义)定答案;相似可能选，绝对定不选;积极可能选，消极必不选。“联系想内容”是指通过各个题支之间的联系来猜测听力材料的内容;“区别(反义)定答案”是指各个题支间的区别是确定答案的关键地方，尤其是意思截然相反的选项，其中之一很可能就是正确答案;“相似可能选”，是指两个结构相似的句子可能其中之一是正确答案;“绝对定不选”，是指内容过于绝对的选项一定不是正确答案，例如：选项中出现了only, all, any, best等词;“积极可能选，消极必不选”，其实是一个问题的两个方面，是指内容积极向上或者含义深刻的选项有可能是正确选项，而内容消极的选项一定是不正确的选项。但是，由于听力部分含有四种不同的题型，所以除了这个适用于所有听力预测的基本原则之外，每种题型都有自己一些特殊的预测方法，请具体参见后面各节中的解题技巧点拨部分。这里只针对一般情况作出举例说明。 1.联系想内容 A) Give his ankle a good rest. B) Treat his injury immediately. C) Continue his regular activities. D) Be careful when climbing steps. M: Today is a bad day for me; I fell off a step and twisted my ankle. W: Don’t worry, usually ankle injuries heal quickly if you stop regular activities for a while. Q: What does the woman suggest the man do? 【预测】四个题支的关键区别是谓语不同：give, treat, continue 和be careful，但其中的ankle, injury，regular activities 和climbing steps等之间互有联系，可猜测本题与脚踝受伤有关，而且是女士对男士所提的建议，所以要重点听女士的话语。 2.反义定答案 A)The man hates to lend his tools to other people. B)The man hasn’t finished working on the bookshelf. C)The tools have already been returned to the woman. D)The tools the man borrowed from the woman are missing. W: Simon, could you return the tools I lent you for building the bookshelf last month? M: Uh, well, I hate to tell you this…but I cant seem to find them. Q: What do we learn from the conversation? 【预测】选项C和D的意思截然相反，其中之一必是正确答案。 3.—6(略) 二、定位 由于卷面上的听力部分只有选项没有问题，所以除了要定位选项的内容之外，还必须在听的过程中对问题进行定位，这是做好听力的关键。对于问题的定位，一般会涉及到“5w1h”，即：where, when, who, why, what, how;同时，也可以通过题支的语法特点和含义来提前对问题定位，例如：by + doing sth.表示方式。对于选项内容(正确答案)的定位，一般遵循“听到啥选啥”的原则(短对话除外)。例如：(略) 三、验证(略) 第三节 短对话 一、短对话解题技巧点拨 一般来说，短对话部分共有8组对话，8个问题，每个对话涉及一个问题，彼此之间无联系。而且，与听力部分的其他题目相比，短对话是相对简单的一种题型。它的内容与大学生的日常生活结合最紧密，可能会涉及到学习、考试、住宿、交际、天气、购物、就餐、旅游、约会、交通、工作、送行、会议、娱乐、锻炼、职业等方面。 就解题方法和技巧而言，除了听力通用的“联系想内容，区别(反义)定答案;相似可能选，绝对定不选;积极可能选，消极必不选”的基本原则之外，短对话的解题有一个与其他题型特别不同之处，即：听啥不选啥。“听啥不选啥”，是指对原文直接重复的选项一般不是正确答案。这是因为短对话比较简单，要求考生能完全听懂，并对听到的内容有比较深刻的理解。例如： A)Having confidence in her son. B)Telling her son not to worry. C)Teaching her son by herself. D)Asking the teacher for extra help. W: What would you do if you were in my place? M: If Paul were my son, I’d just not worry. Now that his teacher is giving him extra help and he is working hard himself, he’s sure to do well in the next exam. Q: What’s the man’s suggestion to the woman? 【技巧点拨】选项B中出现了原文的not worry，选项D中出现了原文的his teacher is giving him extra help，但是正确答案A几乎没有出现对话中的原词。 二、短对话真题例析 2009年6月真题 11.A)She expected more people at her party. B)She enjoys entertaining small children. C)She threw a surprise party for her friend. D)She has always enjoyed great popularity. 12.A)They are not used to living in a cold place. B)They feel lucky to live in Florida. C)They are going to have a holiday. D)They have not booked their air tickets yet. 13.A)He was pleased to get the medal. B)He was very courageous. C)He used to be a firefighter. D)He was accused of causing a fire. 14.A)Make a profitable investment. B)Buy a new washing machine C)Get parts for the machine from Japan. D)Have the old washing machine fixed. 15.A)He is pleased with his exciting new job. B)He finds the huge workload unbearable. C)He finds his office much too big for him. D)He is not so excited about his new position. 16.A)The woman is going to hold a big party tomorrow. B)The man has no idea what the right thing to do is. C)The woman doesn’t know how to get to the party. D)The man offers to drive the woman to the party. 17.A)Drawing up a business plan. B) Discussing a term paper. C) Finalizing a contract. D)Reviewing a co-authored article. 18.A)She ordered some paper. C)She chatted online with a friend. B)She had the printer repaired. D)She filled in an application form. 【预测】 11.A)She expected more people at her party. B)She enjoys entertaining small children. C)She threw a surprise party for her friend. D)She has always enjoyed great popularity. 11.四个选项的谓语侧重点和时态都不同，要注意问题如何提问;其中涉及到party, entertain, children, friend, enjoy等词，可以猜测是跟派对有关。 12.A)They are not used to living in a cold place. B)They feel lucky to live in Florida. C)They are going to have a holiday. D)They have not booked their air tickets yet. 12.四个选项侧重点不同，注意问题的问法;其中涉及到place, live, holiday, book tickets等词，可以猜测跟居住地和旅游有关。 13.A)He was pleased to get the medal. B)He was very courageous. C)He used to be a firefighter. D)He was accused of causing a fire. 13.四个选项侧重点不同，注意问题的问法;其中涉及到medal, courageous, firefighter, fire等词，可猜测跟火灾及he的表现有关;D是负面表现，与其他三项都不同，可能是排除项。 14.A)Make a profitable investment. B)Buy a new washing machine. C)Get parts for the machine from Japan. D)Have the old washing machine fixed. 14.四个选项谓语动词侧重点不同，且无主语，注意是针对谁的提问;其中涉及到washing machine, buy, get, fixed等词，可猜测跟购买或修理洗衣机有关;A与其他三项意思基本无关，可排除;B和D意思相反，可能其中之一是答案。 15.A)He is pleased with his exciting new job. B)He finds the huge workload unbearable. C)He finds his office much too big for him. D)He is not so excited about his new position. 15.选项涉及到new job, workload, office, new position, 且谓语动词都跟感受有关，可猜测是关于He对新的工作的感受。16.A)The woman is going to hold a big party tomorrow. B)The man has no idea what the right thing to do is. C)The woman doesn’t know how to get to the party. D)The man offers to drive the woman to the party. 16.选项涉及三次party，可猜测与派对有关;四个选项涉及到两个不同主语，要注意是对谁的提问。 17.A)Drawing up a business plan. B)Discussing a term paper. C)Finalizing a contract. D)Reviewing a co-authored article. 17.选项是四个侧重点不同的现在分词短语，所接宾语也不同，可猜测是考查正在进行的动作。 18.A)She ordered some paper. B)She had the printer repaired. C)She chatted online with a friend. D)She filled in an application form. 18.选项的主语都是she，涉及paper, printer等，可猜测是考查she的与printer相关的行为。 【答案】 DCBBDDCA 【定位及验证】 11.W: There were more than a hundred people at Kate’s birthday party. How come shes got so many friends? M: It’s really no surprise. You know she was popular even when she was a child Q: What does the man imply about Kate? 12.M: They say there’ll be a snow-storm tonight, and the cold weather will last quite a few days. W: Oh! We’re so lucky; we’ll be getting away for a while, and having a holiday in Florida. But let’s call right now to confirm our flight. Q: What do we learn about the two speakers? 13.W: Tony was awarded a medal for rescuing several families from the forest fire. M: I really admire his courage. Q: What do we learn about Tony from the conversation? 14.M: My washing machine is more than fifteen years old and it has worked just fine until last night. W: You’ll never be able to get parts for it, even from Japan. So it might be time to invest a more recent model. Q: What does the woman suggest the man do? (略) 三、短对话真题演练(略) Test 1 2008年12月真题 11.A)Only true friendship can last long. B)Letter writing is going out of style. C)She keeps in regular touch with her classmates. D)She has lost contact with most of her old friends. 12.A)A painter. B)A mechanic. C)A porter. D)A carpenter. 13.A)Look for a place near her office. B)Find a new job down the street. C)Make inquiries elsewhere. D)Rent the $600 apartment. 14.A)He prefers to wear jeans with a larger waist. B)He has been extremely busy recently. C)He has gained some weight lately. D)He enjoyed going shopping with Jane yesterday. 15.A)The woman possesses a natural talent for art. B)Women have a better artistic taste than men. C)He isn’t good at abstract thinking. D)He doesn’t like abstract paintings. 16.A)She couldn’t have left her notebook in the library. B)She may have put her notebook amid the journals. C)She should have made careful notes while doing reading. D)She shouldn’t have read his notes without his knowing it. 17.A)she wants to get some sleep. B)She needs time to write a paper. C)she has a literature class to attend. D)she is troubled by her sleep problem. 18.A)He is confident he will get the job. B)His chance of getting the job is slim. C)It isn’t easy to find a qualified sales manager. D)The interview didn’t go as well as he expected. (略) 四、短对话真题演练答案及解析 Test 1 【答案】 DACCDBAB 【预测】 11.选项涉及到friendship, touch, contact, friends等词，可猜测与友谊有关;C和D意思相反，所以答案可能是其中之一。 12.选项都是人，可能与职业相关，留意其中相关的关键词。 13.选项中涉及look for a place, make inquiries, rent, apartment等词，可猜测与租房有关;C和D意思相反，其中之一可能是答案。 14.选项都是关于he的不同行为或表现，重点听男士的话语及问题的重心。 15.选项涉及两个不同的主语He和She，且与art, painting等有关，可猜测是与艺术的品味等有关;而且根据C和D都是否定可知，对话对男士的情况持否定态度。 16.选项主语是she，且都有情态动词，内容涉及notebook, notes, read notes等词语，可猜测对话是男士对女士把笔记忘在某个地方的推断，重点听男士的声音。 17.选项主语都是she，且涉及sleep, time, class等词，可猜测是关于时间、工作或睡眠的对话，重点听女士的声音。 18.选项涉及he, job, chance, manager, interview等词，可猜测与男士寻找或获得工作有关，男士的声音为重点;A和B意思相反，其中之一可能是正确答案。 【定位及验证】 11.M: I just received an Email from one of my former classmates. I was surprised, I hadn’t heard from him for ages. W: Well, I’ve been out of touch with most of my old friends, only one or two still drop me a line occasionally, Q: What does the woman mean? 12.M: If you can make up your mind about the color, I can start on the outside of your house early next week. W: Well, right now I think I want white for the window frames and yellow for the walls, but I’ll let you know tomorrow. Q: Who is the woman talking to? 13.W: Excuse me; do you have any apartments available for under 500 dollars a month? I need to move in next week when my new job starts. M: The only vacant one I have is 600 dollars, have you inquired at the apartment complex down the street? Q: What does the man suggest the woman do? 14.W: You bought a pair of jeans yesterday, didn’t you? What are they like? M: Oh, they are pretty much like my other ones, except with a larger waist. I guess I havent spent much time exercising lately. Q: What can we infer from the conversation about the man? 15.W: I really like those abstract paintings we saw yesterday. What do you think? M: I guess it’s something I haven’t acquired a taste for yet. Q: What does the man imply? 16.W: You haven’t seen a blue notebook, have you? I hope I didn’t leave it in the reading room. M: Did you check that pile of journals you’ve borrowed from the library the other day? Q: What is the man trying to say to the woman? 17.M: How about joining me for a cup of coffee? W: I’d love to, but I’m exhausted. I was up till 3 this morning, writing a paper for my literature class. Q: Why does the woman decline the man’s invitation? 18.W: You had a job interview yesterday, didn’t you? How did it go? M: Not too bad, I guess. There were about 20 candidates competing for the sales manager’s job. And finally it was down to three of us, but the other two seems better qualified. Q: What does the man imply?